PT Food Co-op

The Food Co-op, 414 Kearney Street, Port Townsend, 98368
Phone: (360) 385-2883

Bisphenol-A (BPA) Information

Read below for information about Bisphenol-A, a chemical component of the epoxy resin that lines most canned foods, of many plastic bottles, and that is present in other products.

1. *NEW STUDY* “BPA Rises By 1200% After Eating From Cans” [link]
Original article, “Canned Soup Consumption and Urinary Bisphenol A: A Randomized Crossover Trial” JAMA. 2011;306(20):2218-2220. (Must be a subscriber to read JAMA article.)
2. Article, “Cancer From the Kitchen?” by Nicholas D. Kristof
3. Bisphenol-A Fact Sheet (from the Alaska Community Action on Toxics)
4. BPA in Baby Bottles (from The Co-op Commons, April/May 2008)
5. BPA in Plastic Water Bottles (from The Co-op Commons June/July 2008)
6. BPA in Cans (from The Co-op Commons June/July 2008)
7. “Is It Time to Ban BPA?” (from The Co-op Commons February/March 2009)
8. Safe Baby Bottle Act (HB 1180/SB 5282) (April/May 2009)
9. Links to websites with information about BPA

2. Cancer From the Kitchen?


The battle over health care focuses on access to insurance, or tempests like the one that
erupted over new mammogram guidelines.

But what about broader public health challenges? What if breast cancer in the United States has less to do with insurance or mammograms and more to do with contaminants in our water or air — or in certain plastic containers in our kitchens? What if the surge in asthma and childhood leukemia reflect, in part, the poisons we impose upon ourselves?

This last week I attended a fascinating symposium at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, exploring whether certain common chemicals are linked to breast cancer and other ailments.

Dr. Philip Landrigan, the chairman of the department of preventive medicine at Mount Sinai, said that the risk that a 50-year-old white woman will develop breast cancer has soared to 12 percent today, from 1 percent in 1975. (Some of that is probably a result of better detection.) Younger people also seem to be developing breast cancer: This year a 10-year-old in California, Hannah, is fighting breast cancer and recording her struggle on a blog.

Likewise, asthma rates have tripled over the last 25 years, Dr. Landrigan said. Childhood leukemia is increasing by 1 percent per year. Obesity has surged. One factor may be lifestyle changes — like less physical exercise and more stress and fast food — but some chemicals may also play a role.

Take breast cancer. One puzzle has been that most women living in Asia have low rates of breast cancer, but ethnic Asian women born and raised in the United States don’t enjoy that benefit. At the symposium, Dr. Alisan Goldfarb, a surgeon specializing in breast cancer, pointed to a chart showing breast cancer rates by ethnicity.

“If an Asian woman moves to New York, her daughters will be in this column,” she said, pointing to “whites.” “It is something to do with the environment.”

What’s happening? One theory starts with the well-known fact that women with more lifetime menstrual cycles are at greater risk for breast cancer, because they’re exposed to more estrogen. For example, a woman who began menstruating before 12 has a 30 percent greater risk of breast cancer than one who began at 15 or later.

It’s also well established that Western women are beginning puberty earlier, and going through menopause later. Dr. Maida Galvez, a pediatrician who runs Mount Sinai’s pediatric environmental health specialty unit, told the symposium that American girls in the year 1800 had their first period, on average, at about age 17. By 1900 that had dropped to 14. Now it is 12.

A number of studies, mostly in animals, have linked early puberty to exposure to pesticides, P.C.B.’s and other chemicals. One class of chemicals that creates concern — although the evidence is not definitive — is endocrine disruptors, which are often similar to estrogen and may fool the body into setting off hormonal changes. This used to be a fringe theory, but it is now being treated with great seriousness by the Endocrine Society, the professional association of hormone specialists in the United States.

These endocrine disruptors are found in everything from certain plastics to various cosmetics. “There’s a ton of stuff around that has estrogenic material in it,” Dr. Goldfarb said. “There’s makeup that you rub into your skin for a youthful appearance that is really estrogen.”

More than 80,000 new chemicals have been developed since World War II, according to the Children’s Environmental Health Center at Mount Sinai. Even of the major chemicals, fewer than 20 percent have been tested for toxicity to children, the center says.

Representative Louise Slaughter, the only microbiologist in the House of Representatives, introduced legislation this month that would establish a comprehensive program to monitor endocrine disruptors. That’s an excellent idea, because as long as we’re examining our medical system, there’s a remarkable precedent for a public health effort against a toxic substance. The removal of lead from gasoline resulted in an 80 percent decline in lead levels in our blood since 1976 — along with a six-point gain in children’s I.Q.’s, Dr. Landrigan said.

I asked these doctors what they do in their own homes to reduce risks. They said that they avoid microwaving food in plastic or putting plastics in the dishwasher, because heat may cause chemicals to leach out. And the symposium handed out a reminder card listing “safer plastics” as those marked (usually at the bottom of a container) 1, 2, 4 or 5.

It suggests that the “plastics to avoid” are those numbered 3, 6 and 7 (unless they are also marked “BPA-free”). Yes, the evidence is uncertain, but my weekend project is to go through containers in our house and toss out 3’s, 6’s and 7’s.

3. Bisphenol-A

Fact Sheet
from the Alaska Community Action on Toxics website


Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a high-volume production chemical used to make epoxy resin and polycarbonate plastic products, including some kinds of water bottles, baby bottles, and food storage and heating containers.1 It is also used in the lining of metal food cans and in dental sealants, and is an additive to certain plastics used in children’s toys.1,2 The chemical was first developed as a synthetic estrogen and was later polymerized to produce polycarbonate.3,4 Bisphenol-A mimics estrogen activity and is known as an “endocrine disruptor,” a chemical that interferes with the hormonal system in animals and humans and contributes to adverse health effects.1 Bisphenol-A also causes a variety of impacts through mechanisms of action that are probably unrelated to estrogenic properties.

Humans are exposed to bisphenol-A on a daily basis through consumption of food and beverages contaminated with bisphenol-A, as well as through environmental contamination. Polycarbonate plastic can become unstable over time and with use, allowing bisphenol-A to leach into material in contact with the plastic.4 Additionally, bisphenol-A is now pervasive in the environment and commonly found in dust particles, surface water and drinking water, as over 6 billion pounds are produced worldwide each year5 and production of bisphenol-A chemical releases approximately 2 hundred thousand pounds of the chemical into the atmosphere annually.6

A recent study by scientists from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 95% of Americans now carry bisphenol-A in their urine at an average level of 1.36 ?g/g.7

Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers exposure to 50 ?g/kg/day of bisphenol-A safe, this standard was set in 1993 and is based on studies from the 1980s.8 Currently, there is controversy over effects of bisphenol-A on human health. In August 2007, over 30 scientific experts on bisphenol-A, known as the Chapel Hill panel, published a consensus statement in the peer-reviewed journal Reproductive Toxicology, stating significant evidence indicates adverse health effects occur in animals at levels within the range of exposure that is typical for humans living in developed countries.9 Later that month, a separate panel of scientists in the U.S. National Toxicology Program’s Center for Environmental Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) concluded they have “minimal concern” about the role of bisphenol-A in human reproductive effects, and “some concern that exposure to Bisphenol A in utero causes neural and behavioral effects.”10 While this statement by the CERHR panel makes it the first government panel in the world to declare that bisphenol-A is not safe, its conclusions nevertheless differ drastically from the Chapel Hill panel in degree of concern. Adding to the controversy are considerations that the CERHR panel excluded from review many peer-reviewed scientific studies and relied heavily upon an industry-funded study that had not been peer reviewed.11
In one of the reviews of scientific literature excluded by the CERHR panel, researchers found numerous studies indicate a wide range of health effects from exposure to bisphenol-A at significantly lower doses (as low as 2 parts per billion in some studies) than considered “safe” by the EPA.12

While the majority of research on bisphenol-A has been conducted on animals and cell cultures, there is strong evidence that similar effects occur in humans. The Chapel Hill panel reached the conclusion in August 2007, “Based on existing data we are confident … the similar effects observed in wildlife and laboratory animals exposed to bisphenol-A predict that similar effects are also occurring in humans.”9 Moreover, research on estrogenic compounds all over the world has consistently demonstrated that “animal studies of the effects of estrogenic substances are highly predictive of human impacts.”13
Since summer 2005, over 130 studies have examined the low dose effects of bisphenol-A.14 As a result, bisphenol-A has been linked to the following effects:

Endocrine disruption:
As early as 1936, bisphenol-A was shown to be an environmental estrogen. Compared with natural estrogen, bisphenol-A is a less potent activator of the classic estrogen receptor, but in recent years it has been recognized that “BPA is equipotent with estradiol in its ability to activate responses via recently discovered estrogen receptors associated with the cell membrane,” as found in several studies on cell culture and laboratory animals.9 In addition to being shown to bind to estrogen receptors, evidence suggests that bisphenol-A also can cause alterations is endogenous hormone synthesis, hormone metabolism and hormone concentrations in blood.9 Exposure to bisphenol-A has been shown to cause changes in tissue enzymes and hormone receptors as well as interacting with other hormone- response systems.

Recurrent miscarriage:
Researchers found that women with a history of recurrent miscarriage had average blood serum levels of bisphenol-A at 2.59 ng/ml, more than three times higher than women with successful pregnancies,15 a finding predicted by previous animal studies.16

Altered mammary gland development:
In a laboratory study, mammary gland development was significantly altered in mice exposed to 250 ng BPA/kg bw·d of bisphenol-A,17 the lowest dose thus far shown to disrupt animal development. Scientists suggest that this study’s implications for human health include increased susceptibility to breast cancer after perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A.16

Prostate cancer:
Research using cell cultures showed that a concentration of bisphenol-A of 1 nM made prostate cancer cells less responsive to the hormone treatment used to control prostatic adenocarcinomas into remission.18 Whether this cell culture impact also occurs in people is uncertain, but the concentration is lower than the average
level of bisphenol-A found in Americans, as reported by Calafat et al. in 2005.7
Altered brain development and behavior: Scientists found that bisphenol-A exposure in the womb modifies sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats at only 30 ?g/kg/day, lower than the dose considered safe by the EPA. For some behaviors tested, results suggest that bisphenol-A exposure was linked to both of males and of females. 198demasculinizationdefeminization

Insulin resistance:
A recent study in adult mice provided evidence of an association between bisphenol-A exposure and increased risk of type II diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia.20 In this study, scientists found that chronic exposure to low doses of bisphenol-A yields insulin resistance in adult mice. Doses used in their experiments were 5 times lower than the dose considered safe by the EPA.8

Developmental origins of adult health and disease:
The 2007 “Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel Consensus Statement: Integration of Mechanisms, Effects in Animals and Potential to Impact Human Health at Current Levels of Exposure” states that enough evidence exists to suggest that adverse health outcomes may not become apparent until after exposure during critical developmental periods has happened.9 Especially of concern is that “these developmental effects are irreversible and can occur due to low-dose exposure during brief sensitive periods in development, even though no BPA may be detected when the damage or disease is expressed.”9

Federal regulation of toxic chemicals is a critical part of protecting public health. However, according to the Environmental Working Group, “The nation’s system of regulations for industrial chemicals like [bisphenol-A] are embodied in the Toxic Substances Control Act, a law passed in 1976, and the only major environmental or public health statute that has never been updated.”21 Furthermore, “under this law, companies are not required to test chemicals for safety before they are sold, and are not required to track whether their products end up in people or the environment at unsafe levels.”21 To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not performed a standard toxicology study or determined an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for bisphenol-A.21,22 Globally, bisphenol-A has not been banned, restricted, cancelled, or designated illegal for import in any country.23

You can prevent or minimize exposure to bisphenol-A in the following ways:

  • Use glass, stainless steel, or polyethylene bottles (PETE, PET, or #1; HDPE or #2; LDPE or #4) instead of polycarbonate (PC or #7) bottles.24
  • Avoid heating foods in polycarbonate containers, as bisphenol-A tends to leach faster with higher temperatures.25 Use glass or ceramic containers instead.
  • Cut back on consumption of canned foods to reduce exposure to bisphenol-A contamination from the interior coating of the container. Also, avoid canned foods with higher fat content, which may have higher levels of bisphenol-A.25
  • Before getting dental sealants, check with your dentist about the ingredients in the products they use, as some formulations may leach bisphenol-A.25

1 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). 2006. Endocrine Disruptors. Available: [Accessed 25 June 2007].
2 Maffini MV, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2006. Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health: The case of bisphenol-A. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 254-255:179-186.
3 Colborn T, Dumanoski D, Myers JP. 1996. Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival?—A Scientific Detective Story. New York: Dutton.
4 Myers JP (Ed). Our Stolen Future: Background on BPA: What is it, how is it used and what does science say about exposure risks. Available: [Accessed 9 July 2007].
5 Susiarjo M, Hassold TJ, Freeman E, Hunt PA. 2007. Bisphenol A exposure in utero disrupts early oogenesis in the mouse. PLoS Genetics 3(1):63-70.
6 Markey CM, Michaelson CL, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2001. Alkylphenols and bisphenol A as environmental estrogens. In: Metzler M (Ed.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Part L, Endocrine Disruptors—Part I, vol. 3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 129–153.
7 Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Reidy JA, Caudill SP, Ekong J, Needham LL. 2005. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol in a human reference population. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:391-395.
8 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Integrated Risk Information System. 1993. Bisphenol A. CASRN 80-05-7. Available: [Accessed 2 July 2007].
9 vom Saal F, Akingbemi BT, Belcher SM, Birnbaum LS, Crain DA, Eriksen M, et al. 2007. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement: Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reproductive Toxicology, in press.
10 Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). 2007. Draft meeting summary. Expert panel evaluation of bisphenol A. Available: [Accessed 7 September, 2007].
11 Myers JP (Ed). 2007. Our Stolen Future: 38 experts on bisphenol A warn policy makers about potential adverse health effects. Available: [Accessed 7 September 2007].
12 vom Saal F, Hughes C. 2005. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(8): 926-933.
13 Myers JP (Ed). Our Stolen Future: Scientists call for new risk assessment of bisphenol A and reveal industry biases in research. Available: [Accessed 10 September 2007].
14 vom Saal F, Welshons W. 2006. Large effects from small exposures. II. The importance of positive controls in low-dose research on bisphenol A. Environmental Research 100:50-76.
15 Sugiura-Ogasawara M, Ozaki Y, Sonta S, Makino T, Suzumori K. 2005. Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Human Reproduction 20:2325-2329.
16 Hunt PA, Koehler KE, Susiarjo M, Hodges CA, Ilagan A, Voigt RC, et al. 2003. Bisphenol A exposure causes meiotic aneuploidy in the female mouse. Current Biology 13:546-553.
17 Muñoz-de-Toro M, Markey C, Wadia PR, Luque EH, Rubin BS, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM. 2005. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A alters peripubertal mammary gland development in mice. Endocrinology 146:4138-4147.
18 Wetherill YB. 2002. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A induces inappropriate androgen receptor activation and mitogenesis in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 1(7):515-24.
19 Kubo K, Arai O, Omura M, Wantanabe R, Ogata R, Aou S. 2003. Low dose effects of bisphenol A on sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior in rats. Neuroscience Research 45:345-356.
20 Alonso-Magdalena P, Morimoto S, Ripoll S, Fuentes E, Nadal A. 2006. The estrogenic effect of bisphenol-A disrupts the pancreatic ß-cell function in vivo and induces insulin resistance. Environmental Health Perspectives 114:106-112.
21 Sutton R, Jackson J. Walker B, Tupper G, Horenstein B (eds.). 2007, July 12. Down the Drain: Sources of Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals in San Francisco Bay. Oakland, CA: Environmental Working Group. Available: [Accessed 10 September 2007].
22 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007. Cumulative Estimated Daily Intake/Acceptable Daily Intake Database. Available: [Accessed 10 September 2007].
23 Kegley S, Hill B, Orme S. 2007. PAN Pesticide Database: Bisphenol A – toxicity, ecological toxicity and regulatory information. San Francisco, CA: Pesticide Action Network, North America. Available: [Accessed 10 September 2007].
24 Physicians for Social Responsibility. 2001. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. Available: [Accessed 10 July 2007].
25 Myers JP (Ed). Our Stolen Future: Bisphenol A may interfere with treatment for prostate cancer. Available: [Accessed 10 July 2007].

Download a Bisphenol-A Fact Sheet (PDF) from

4. BPA in Baby Bottles

from The Co-op Commons (April/May 2008)


It might be time to reconsider plastic baby bottles filled with prepared baby formula. We continue to learn about the health effects of some of the chemical toxins that leach into our food from plastic food containers, water bottles, and plastics-lined cans. Check out the tips below to help you limit your baby’s contact with these chemicals.

  • Use clear silicone nipples. Latex rubber nipples can cause allergic reactions and can contain impurities linked to cancer.
  • Use glass bottles. Plastic bottles can leach a toxic chemical called bisphenol A (BPA) into formula. Avoid clear, hard plastic bottles marked with a 7 or “PC.”
  • Don’t use plastic bottle liners. The soft plastic liners may leach chemicals into formula, especially when heated.
  • Choose powdered formula. BPA can leach from the lining of metal cans and lids. Liquid formulas have higher levels. Avoid all ready-to-eat liquid formulas in metal cans.
  • Warm bottles in a pan of hot water. Microwaving can heat unevenly and cause chemicals to leach from plastic bottles into formula.

Source: Environmental Working Group 

5. BPA in Plastic Water Bottles

from The Co-op Commons (June/July 2008)


Most plastic water bottles are designed for one-time use and then thrown away. These bottles end up in landfills and waterways, where they won’t break down for thousands of years. An alternative is hard plastic polycarbonate bottles like the New Wave Enviro* and Custom Pure bottles. Recently, though, there are concerns the chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) may leach from polycarbonate or epoxy-lined containers into foods and beverages.

Industry claims “the potential migration of BPA into food is extremely low” and that “the average adult would have to ingest about 1,300 pounds of food and beverage in contact with polycarbonate every day for an entire lifetime to exceed the level of BPA that the EPA has set as safe” (Bisphenol-A website at Other studies suggest exercising caution because animal studies show BPA can affect reproduction and brain development. The FDA is currently reviewing the safety of this chemical by-product of polycarbonate bottle manufacture.

Clearly, there are questions about the safety of BPA. The Food Co-op has been researching this concern for some time, but there are no easy answers. You can minimize leaching by washing polycarbonate bottles by hand with a non-corrosive dish detergent. Polycarbonate bottles shouldn’t be heated or used to hold hot liquids and should never be left in a hot car. If you want to avoid leaching altogether, there are alternatives, like stainless steel Kleen Kanteens*. Glass canning jars with lids work great, too. Pint jars are available new in our bulk section or used at secondhand stores. Five gallon glass bottles are available by special order from Custom Pure.

*made in China

6. BPA in Cans

from The Co-op Commons (June/July 2009)


DORN CAMPBELL, Member-Owner & Product Selection Guidelines Committee Member

Most of the cans that contain the fruits, vegetables, soups and sauces that we buy are painted on the inside with a hard epoxy resin to protect the metal from rusting. This resin contains a chemical called bisphenal-A (BPA), which slowly leaches out of the resin into the food in the can. This chemical is of concern to people because even small amounts of the chemical may cause changes in our bodies. Tests on the impacts of BPA on animals have found that it is an endocrine disruptor that mimics estrogens, binding to the same receptors throughout the body as natural female hormones, and possibly promoting the growth of cancer cells.

A 1976 study showed that tiny doses (two-tenths of a part per trillion) of estrogen-like chemicals like BPA stimulated cell receptors in mice that later developed cancer. Another study screened 40,000 genes in human cells that were exposed to BPA and found the cells to behave in ways that were characteristic of aggressive cancer cells.

The average child of six has about 10 times that level of a BPA by-product in their urine. The U.S. Center for Disease Control collected urine samples from 2,157 people age six to 85 and found 93% had from 33 to 80 billionths of a gram of a BPA by-product per kilogram of body weight. In that 2004 study, children were found to have higher levels of this substance than adolescents; adolescents had higher levels than adults. The conclusions scientists draw from such research is that unborn babies and children are at the highest risk of damage from BPA.

 7. “Is It Time to Ban BPA?”

from The Co-op Commons (February/March 2009)



According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, bisphenol A, a chemical component of plastics found in food and beverage containers, is found in the urine of more than 90% of the U.S. population. A September 2008 study showed that people with high levels of BPA had higher rates of heart disease, diabetes, and liver abnormalities (FDA will continue to study chemical, Washington Post, 12/16/2008). More than 130 studies have linked BPA to breast cancer, obesity, neurological problems and other disorders.

The National Toxicology Program, a U.S. agency, declared its concern over the health safety of the chemical and retailers are conducting voluntary bans of packaging and other products containing BPA. According to The Daily Green, Safeway will stop selling plastic baby bottles made with BPA, and Whole Foods, Walmart, Toys-R-Us, Nalgene and Camelbak have banned the use of BPA in some products. The Natural Resources Defense Council has petitioned the FDA to ban BPA in food packaging.

Even the FDA’s own independent science advisors criticized the FDA’s position on BPA, calling it “scientifically flawed.” Despite the criticism and growing evidence the chemical is unsafe, the FDA is standing by its ruling, although it says it will conduct more research (FDA maintains bisphenal A is safe, Journal Sentinel, 12/15/2008). “At this moment,” said Lara Tarantino, chief of the FDA’s Office of Food Additive Safety, “with all the information in front of us, we do not believe we have the data on which we could base a regulatory ban” (Journal Sentinel).

Again the FDA ignores its own science and other studies and refuses to advocate for the citizens it’s charged with protecting. “While scientific experts, foreign countries and the FDA’s own review panel sound the alarm on BPA’s safety,” said Representative Edward J. Markey of Massachusetts, “the agency prefers to delay action and downplay the urgency of banning BPA in food and beverage containers” (Journal Sentinel). Representative Markey and Senator Charles Schumer (D-N.Y.) are both re-introducing legislation to restrict or ban BPA in 2009.

What can we do? Begin by trying to avoid BPA as much as possible. The Product Review and Research Committee (previously the Product Selection Guidelines Committee) is currently working on identifying products in our store that are BPA-free and we always encourage our members and shoppers to find alternatives to drinking bottled water. To take a more active role in this issue, consider writing to your state legislator to tell them about your concerns and to encourage them to support any bills to ban BPA.

The Product Review and Research Committee meets the 2nd Wednesday each month at the Co-op Annex at 2482 Washington Street (across from the PT Yacht Club) if you’d like to get involved with this and other important issues related to the products we carry in our store.

8. Safe Baby Bottle Act (HB1180/SB5282)

from “Take Back Your Food” in The Co-op Commons (April/May 2009)

SAFE BABY BOTTLE ACT OF 2009 (HB 1180 / SB 5282)
Protects children’s health by prohibiting the use of BPA in baby bottles and children’s food containers.  The bill, passed earlier this year, prohibits the sale or manufacture of food and beverage containers containing BPA that are intended for children under 3, such as baby bottles and sippy cups, beginning July 1, 2010.

9. Links:

Survey of Bisphenol-A in U.S. Canned Food (Environmental Working Group)

5 Ways to Keep BPA Out of Your Food (U.S. News & World Report)

“Our Stolen Future” website at

Bisphenol-A Overview (Environment California)

EPA Bisphenol-A Study (Environmental Protection Agency)

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